Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2016
Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Cash and Cash Equivalents

a) Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and short‑term investments purchased with remaining maturities of three months or less at acquisition.

Marketable Securities

b) Marketable Securities

Marketable securities are considered “available-for-sale” in accordance with Financial Statement Accounting Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 320, “Debt and Equity Securities”, and thus are reported at fair value in the Company’s accompanying balance sheet, with unrealized gains and losses excluded from earnings and reported as a separate component of stockholders’ equity.  Amounts reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive loss into realized gains and losses are accounted for on the basis of specific identification and are included in other income or expense in the statement of operations.  The Company classifies such investments as current on the balance sheet as the investments are readily marketable and available for use in the Company’s current operations. 


c) Equipment

Equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation, based on the lesser of the term of the lease or the estimated useful life of the assets, is provided as follows:




Depreciation Method

Furniture and fixtures

7 years

straight line

Office equipment

5 years

straight line

Lab equipment

5-7 years

straight line

Computer equipment

3-5 years

straight line

Leasehold improvements

3-5 years

straight line

Research and Development

d) Research and Development

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.  Research and development expenses consist primarily of third party service costs under research and development agreements, salaries and related personnel costs, including stock-based compensation, costs to acquire pharmaceutical products and product rights for development and amounts paid to contract research organizations, hospitals and laboratories for the provision of services and materials for drug development and clinical trials.

Costs incurred in obtaining the licensing rights to technology in the research and development stage that have no alternative future uses and are for unapproved product compounds are expensed as incurred.

Use of Estimates

e) Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.  These estimates are based on management’s best knowledge of current events and actions the Company may undertake in the future.  Actual results may ultimately differ from these estimates.  These estimates are reviewed periodically and as adjustments become necessary, they are reported in earnings in the period in which they become available.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

f) Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The carrying amounts reported in the accompanying financial statements for cash and cash equivalents, prepaid expenses and other assets, and accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value because of the short‑term maturity of these financial instruments.  The fair value of warrant liabilities is discussed in Note 12, the fair value of marketable securities and certain other assets and liabilities is discussed in Note 16. 

Income Taxes

g) Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, “Income Taxes”.  Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recorded for differences between the financial statement and tax basis of the assets and liabilities that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in the future based on enacted tax laws and rates.  ASC 740 requires that a valuation allowance be established when it is more likely than not that all portions of a deferred tax asset will not be realized.  A review of all positive and negative evidence needs to be considered, including a company’s current and past performance, the market environment in which the company operates, length of carryback and carryforward periods and existing contracts that will result in future profits.  Income tax expense is recorded for the amount of income tax payable or refundable for the period, increased or decreased by the change in deferred tax assets and liabilities during the period.

As a result of the Company’s significant cumulative losses, the Company determined that it was appropriate to establish a valuation allowance for the full amount of deferred tax assets.

The calculation of the Company’s tax liabilities involves the inherent uncertainty associated with the application of complex tax laws.  The Company is subject to examination by various taxing authorities.  The Company believes that, as a result of its loss carryforward sustained to date, any examination would result in a reduction of its net operating losses rather than a tax liability.  As such, the Company has not provided for any additional taxes that would be estimated under ASC 740.

Stock-Based Compensation

h) Stock-Based Compensation

In accordance with ASC 718, “Stock Compensation,” compensation costs related to share-based payment transactions, including employee stock options, are to be recognized in the financial statements. In addition, the Company adheres to the guidance set forth within Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) No. 107, which provides the Staff’s views regarding the interaction between ASC 718 and certain SEC rules and regulations, and provides interpretations with respect to the valuation of share-based payments for public companies.

Concentration of Credit Risk

i) Concentration of Credit Risk

ASC 825, “Financial Instruments,” requires disclosure of any significant off balance sheet risk and credit risk concentration.  The Company does not have significant off‑balance sheet risk or credit concentration.  The Company maintains cash and cash equivalents with major financial institutions.  From time to time the Company has funds on deposit with commercial banks that exceed federally insured limits.  The balances are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250,000. At December 31, 2016, the Company’s uninsured cash balance was $11,078,473. Management does not consider this to be a significant credit risk as the banks are large, established financial institutions.


j) Reclassification

Certain amounts in the prior year’s financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation with no material effect on the financial statements.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements Affecting the Company

k) Recent Accounting Pronouncements Affecting the Company

Revenue from Contracts with Customers

In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” a comprehensive new revenue recognition standard that will supersede nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP. The standard’s core principle is that a company should recognize revenue when it transfers goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services, and provides a revenue recognition framework in accordance with this principle.  On August 12, 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14, which defers the effective date of ASU 2014-09 by one year to December 15, 2017 for annual reporting periods beginning after that date and interim periods therein.  Early adoption of the standard is permitted, but not before the original effective date of December 15, 2016.  The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of this guidance will have on its financial statements and future operating results.

Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern

In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, “Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern,” which requires management to perform interim and annual assessments as to the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern and provides related disclosure guidance.  ASU 2014-15 is effective for reporting periods ending after December 15, 2016, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted this pronouncement for the year ended December 31, 2016.  This pronouncement did not have a material impact on its financial statements.


In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases,” which requires an entity to recognize assets and liabilities arising from leases on the balance sheet and to provide additional disclosures about leasing arrangements.  ASU 2016-02 will be effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this guidance will have on its financial statements.

Compensation-Stock Compensation

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, “Compensation-Stock Compensation: Improvements to Employee Share Based Payment Accounting,” which includes multiple provisions intended to simplify various aspects of accounting for share-based payments.  The guidance is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, with early adoption permitted.  The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this guidance will have on its financial statements.